This suggests that this tendency had already evolved in the common ancestors of humans and chimpanzees and is not uniquely human, but describes a conceptual metaphorical mapping that predates language.
In antiquity[ edit ] In the Western philosophical tradition, Aristotle is often situated as the first commentator on the nature of metaphor, writing in the Poetics"A 'metaphorical term' involves the transferred use of a term that properly belongs to something else,"  and elsewhere in the Rhetoric he says that metaphors make learning pleasant; "To learn easily is naturally pleasant to all people, and words signify something, so whatever words create knowledge in us are the pleasantest.
Lakoff's work, Women, Fire, and Dangerous Thingsanswered some of these criticisms before they were even made: he explores the effects of cognitive metaphors both culturally specific and human-universal on the grammar per se of several languages, and the evidence of the limitations of the classical logical-positivist or Anglo-American School philosophical concept of the category usually used to explain or describe the scientific method.
If this is true, then Lakoff asks what would be the point of the afterlife?
See conceptual metaphor. Lakoff and Johnson focus on English, and cognitive scholars writing in English have tended not to investigate the discourse of foreign languages in any great detail to determine the creative ways in which individuals negotiate, resist, and consolidate conceptual metaphors.
Because we think with our brains, every thought we have is physical, constituted by neural circuitry. The book is a blend of cognitive science and political analysis. Among the wondrous things that he found in Berkeley was an expression that he heard over and over and understood as a beautifully sane metaphor.
Janet SoskiceProfessor of Philosophical Theology at the University of Cambridgewrites in summary that "it is certain that we shall taste the freshness of their insights only if we free them from the obligation to answer questions that were never theirs to ask".