Microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages computer science essay
Memory model is related to how memory is used to store data Issues Addressable unit size Address spaces Endianness Alignment Week3 20 Addressable unit size Memory has units, each of which has an address Most common unit size is 8 bits 1 byte Modern processors have multiple-byte unit For example: bit instruction memory in MIPs bit Instruction memory in AVR Week3 21 Address spaces The range of addresses a processor can access.
Identify four of the most important changes introduced in IPv6 and outline the major reason for each change. We use AVR microcontroller as the example in our course study Week3 4 Microprocessor types Microprocessors can be characterized based on the word size 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit, etc.
Explain what is meant by the term format string in the context of a printf function.
It is stored in the memory at address 0x big endian: little endian: Address data 0x 0x 0x 0x Address data 0x 0x 0x 0x Week3 26 Alignment Often multiple bytes can be fetched from memory Alignment specifies how the beginning address of a multiple-byte data is determined.
Give two examples of the software techniques used to overcome these problems. Note that all frames are initially empty.
If id ex mem wb
The original string is unaffected. Week3 28 Instruction format Is a definition Instructions typically consist of how instructions are represented in binary code Instructions typically consist of Opcode Operation Code defines the operation e. It is stored in the memory at address 0x big endian: little endian: Address data 0x 0x 0x 0x Address data 0x 0x 0x 0x Week3 26 Alignment Often multiple bytes can be fetched from memory Alignment specifies how the beginning address of a multiple-byte data is determined. If so, for what purpose? Show, with the aid of suitably commented C statements, how an element of the array h could be accessed through pointer p. Example reversePrint "pots" will print the character string "stop". For example 4-byte words starting at addresses 0,4,8, … 8-byte words starting at addresses 0, 8, 16, … Alignment makes memory data accessing more efficient Week3 27 Example A hardware design that has data fetched from memory every 4 bytes Fetching an unaligned data as shown means to access memory twice. The bus width: the number of bits the address is represented Week3 23 Endianness Memory objects Memory objects are basic entities that can be accessed as a function of the address and the length E. The address space can be one or more than one in a processor. OpCode Operand Operand Operand3 Week3 34 Example 2 For a 16 bit instruction machine with 16 registers, design OpCodes that allow for 14 3-operand instructions 30 2-operand instructions 30 1-operand instructions 32 0-operand instructions Week3 35 Addressing modes Instructions need to specify where to get operands from Some possibilities Values are in the instruction Values are in the register Register number is in the instruction Values are in memory address is in instruction address is in a register register number is in the instruction address is register value plus some offset offset is in the instruction or in a register These ways of specifying the operand locations are called addressing modes Week3 36 Immediate Addressing addw 99, d7 The operand is from the instruction itself I. How many page faults would occur for the following replacement algorithms, assuming four frames?
Use this feature to complete the equivalence: h[n] is the same as Can traps be generated intentionally by a user program?
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